Wednesday, September 14, 2011


DOGS 
  DOGS History and Breeds 
History of the Dog:
History of the Dog Believed to be the first animal domesticated by humans 10,000 years ago Originated 12,000-14,000 years
ago in Europe and Asia Evolved due to selective breeding for specific purposes Mosaic, about 5th to 6th century A.D. 
Miacis – ancestor of the entire dog family:
Miacis – ancestor of the entire dog family 40-50 million years ago Small, elongated body Spent most of time in forest 

 

Tomarctus – “Father” of the modern dog:
Tomarctus – “Father” of the modern dog Body built for speed and endurance Hunter 
 
Seven Major Dog Groups:
Seven Major Dog Groups Sporting Hound Terrier Working Herding Toy Nonsporting Miscellaneous
Sporting Group:
Sporting Goup Developed to assist hunters in pursuit of game 24 breeds recognized. Ex.Spaniels Retrievers Weimaraners Pointers

Hound Group:
Hound Group Two types – scent hunters sight hunters Ex. Afgan Basset Beagle Dachshund
Terrier Group:
Terrier Group Two types long-legged, larger breeds short-legged, small breeds Ex. Bull Terrier Fox Terrier Miniature Schnauzer West Highland White
Working Group:
Working Group Developed for labor Serve as guard dogs, sled dogs, police dogs, rescue dogs and messenger dogs Ex. Alaskan Malamute Boxer Doberman Shetland Sheepdog
Herding Group :
Herding Group Developed to aid livestock herder Ex. Welsh Corgi German Shepard
Toy Group:
Toy Group Grouped due to size Popular house pets Ex. Yorkshire terrier Pekingese Chihuahua
Non-Sporting Group:
Non-Sporting Group Wide variety of sizes and characteristics Companion dogs Ex. Boston Terrier Dalmation Lhasa Apso
Miscellaneous Class:
Miscellaneous Class Five breeds in this class May compete in obedience trials, but not for championship points Ex. Jack Russell Havanese Spinone Italiano
Choosing a Dog: 
Questions to Ask Why do I want a dog? Companion Lap warmer Protection Breeding Sport

What type of dog do you want?
:
What type of dog do you want? Purebreds or “mutt” Think about: aggressiveness tolerance excitability

Indoor? Outdoor?:
Indoor? Outdoor? Consider: Size Excitability Coat length Climate Allergies Train as indoor dog first in case it needs to move inside. Ex. bad weather (better training and fewer behavior problems
 
FEEDING YOUR DOG:
FEEDING YOUR DOG Adequate diet and clean water are needed for a healthy pet!
Commercial feed supply all needed nutrients and energy. Three types of commercial feed Dry Semi-moist Canned
Dry Feed:
Dry Feed Main ingredients are corn, soybean meal, wheat, millings, meat and bone meal 10% moisture Contains only 23% protein Cheaper, more convenient, won’t spoil, cleans teeth
Semi-Moist Feed:
Semi-Moist Feed Contains corn, meat by-products, soybean meal, and corn syrup 30% moisture
Canned Feed:
Canned Feed Two types Ratio type – contains barley, meat by-products, wheat grain and soy flour Meat type – contains meat by-products, meat, poultry, and soy flour Has most protein at 44% 75% moisture Most expensive
Special Considerations in Feeding:
Special Considerations in Feeding Pregnant females Increase feed as weight increase at about 4 weeks May be eating 35-50% more feed (3-4 meals per day) After welping, needs2-3 times as much food Begin decreasing feed as the puppies are weaned
Special Considerations Cont.: 
Special Considerations Cont. Puppies Should be weaned by six weeks of age Can be fed milk, meat, cooked eggs, cottage cheese (cow's milk may cause diarrhea) These are easily digested and good protein sources Need 3-4 meals a day until digestive system is adjusted
Special Considerations Cont.:
Special Considerations Cont. Older dogs Need fewer calories due to slower metabolism Avoid overfeeding REMEMBER … Always cook eggs before giving to a dog Do not feed bones that splinter ex. chicken, turkey, and pork
Exercising Your Dog:
Exercising Your Dog Amount of exercise depends on: Size Age Breed Use
Exercise Guidelines:
Exercise Guidelines Do not exercise dog strenuously w/in 2 hours after eating a large meal  
Have dog examined before exercise 
Exercise Guidelines Cont.:
Exercise Guidelines Cont. Condition over time. (need to strengthen muscles, joints, cardiac systems, and to toughen foot pads)
Training your dog:
Training your dog Begin as soon as possible Teach name and basic corrective behavior first Need to know which behaviors are acceptable and which are not Always correct wrong behavior immediately - association Never hit or threaten with hand or object
Grooming
Haircoat:
Grooming Haircoat Daily brushing removes dead hair and skin Check longhaired dogs for mats – behind ears and under legs Give bath when extremely dirty: too much strips oil from fur Use mild soap, baby shampoo, or coconut-oil shampoo: never use detergent soaps.
Nails:
Nails Need trimming occasionally Don’t cut into nail bed, (can be seen on white/clear nails but not on black nails) If bleeding occurs stop with a stryptic pencil
Ears:
Ears Need to be cleaned once a month Use cotton swab or soft cloth soaked in mineral oil, hydrogen peroxide, or alcohol Only clean visible part of the ear
Eyes:
Eyes Boric acid solutions can be used to clean irritating substances out of the eye Hunting dogs need to be checked after each outing
Teeth:
Teeth Clean once or twice a week A toothbrush or gauze can be used with toothpaste, salt water or a mixture of salt water and baking soda Rawhide, synthetic bones, and hard chew toys will help keep teeth clean
Reproduction:
Reproduction Estrus – heat, occurs b/6-12 months of age. (larger dogs up to 2 yearsof age ) Intervals of seven months Proestrus – 9 days before estrus when female is attractive to the male Ovulation occurs in the first 48 hours of estrus
Pregnancy:
Pregnancy Gestation – avg. 63 days Signs of pregnancy: Increase in appetite, weight and breast size
Pregnancy cont.:
Pregnancy cont. A whelping box will be helpful As whelping approaches, her temperature will be slightly below normal (100.4*F) Temp. should be around 96.8* F about 24 hours before whelping Each puppy is contained in a separate placental membrane; mother will remove this 

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