Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Taxonomy

Science 
The Science of Classification
Classification: The process of putting similar things into groups. 
Taxonomy: Is the science of classifying organisms. 
History of Classification 
384-322 B.C.
Aristotle (Greek Philosopher).

Created first written classification scheme .
TWO Groups -
  1.  Plants 
  2. Animals.
    Animal group - anything that lived on land, in the water or in the air..
    Plant group - based this on their different stems.
    1500's - 1700's
    Many different classification systems created .
    Many of them really complicated.
    Names based on common names - This created confusion.
Names also based on long scientific definitions.
1700's - Carols Linnaeus - 
Swedish Biologisestablished a simple system for classifying and naming organisms
Based on structural similarities of organism
Binomial Nomenclature - 2 name naming system - still in use today.
Created a system of groups called TAXA or TAXON
Each Taxon is a category into which related organisms are placed
Approximantly 2.5 million kinds of organisms identified 
Modern Day Levels of Classification
Kingdom    Phylum     Class    Order  Family    Genus   Species 
Kids           Playing      Catch   On       Freeway  Get       Squashed
Modern Taxonomy 
The Evidence used to classify into taxon groups
1) Embryology
2) Chromosomes / DNA
3) Biochemistry
4) Physiology
5) Evolution
6) Behavior
Binomial Nomenclature 
Is a system of Scientific Naming using TWO NAMES FOR EVERY ORGANISM:
The GENUS and the SPECIES name.

The system follows certain rules:
 
  1. The scientific name must be in Greek or Latin language.
     This helps to accurate communicate information to other biologist around the world who use many different languages. This is done by assigning a unique two-word scientific name to each organism. (BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE).
  2. The first part of the name is called the Genus and the second part of the name is called the species.
  3. The Genus name refers to the relatively small group of organisms to which a particular type of organism belongs. 
  4. The SECOND part of the name is the SPECIES.
  5. (SPECIES means IDENTIFIER) The Species name is usually a Latin description of some important characteristic of the organism.
( IDENTIFYING ORGANISMS BY THEIR GENUS AND SPECIES NAMES IS CALLED THE BINOMIAL SYSTEM, OR BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE. ("TWO-NAME NAMING)
Advantages of using a universal taxonomic system:
  1. Organization
  2. Common Language
  3. Economics
Inferring Phylogeny
  • Study of evolutionary relationships
  • Phylogenic tree (Family Tree) 
Biosystematics 
  • Study of the evolution of one species into two reproductive compatibility
  • Gene flow 

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